AP-1 transcription factor has been shown to be involved in skin physiology, specifically in tissue regeneration . The process of skin metabolism is initiated by signals that trigger undifferentiated proliferative cells to undergo cell differentiation. Therefore, activity of AP-1 subunits in response to extracellular signals may be modified under conditions where the balance of keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation has to be rapidly and temporally altered.  The AP-1 transcription factor also has been shown to be involved in breast cancer cell growth through multiple mechanisms, including regulation of cyclin D1 , E2F factors and their target genes. c-Jun, which is one of the AP-1 sub units, regulates the growth of breast cancer cells. Activated c-Jun is predominantly expressed at the invasive front in breast cancer and is associated with proliferation of breast cells.  Due to the AP-1 regulatory functions in cancer cells, AP-1 modulation is studied as a potential strategy for cancer prevention and therapy.   
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History. AP-1 was first discovered as a TPA-activated transcription factor that bound to a cis-regulatory element of the human metallothionein IIa promoter ...